TrainAsONE is the first intelligent training app. Forget the generalised stock training plans and the ubiquitous training logs that simply tell you what you have done - TrainAsONE tells you how best to do it.

TrainAsONE is your very own personal trainer that assesses your fitness, monitors every step of your training, continually calculating and adjusting your unique personal training plan (according to the time you have available to train) in order to achieve your desired goal. Every workout produced by TrainAsONE is specifically designed to stress a specific body system (or systems) an appropriate amount to provide the optimal training effect.

To achieve this TrainAsONE will continuously calculate important facets of your performance (such as Velocity of VO2max, Lactate Threshold Velocity and Heart Rate Variability). Making these and other complex calculations enables TrainAsONE to continuously assess your progress and adjust workouts and overall training plan as required - whilst reducing the chances of over-training and consequent injury.

If you are returning to training following a planned or unforeseen break. No problem. TrainAsONE will automatically calculate the appropriate volume and intensity of training to get you back on-track in the shortest possible time.

There is no other system out on the market that performs the in-depth calculations like TrainAsONE to assess your fitness and then uses that to produce a totally unique and personal training plan (unless you know otherwise). The ones that claim to do as such, are really just a disguised collection of 'one size fits none' stock training plans where the system just puts you onto a specific stock plan according to some vague criteria, such as previous race completion time. Their plans are not truly unique, not adaptive and do not anticipate your response to various training stimuli and act accordingly. Did we mention that TrainAsONE performs around 1 million calculations for every second of your run to adjust your plan?
TrainAsONE is suitable for anyone who wants to improve their running abilities, as long as they pass a simple fitness questionnaire. (The questionaire we use is a world-standard set of questions for assessing ability to exercise.)
It is quite simple, We take the data from your mobile phone running app or your sports watch to analyse and assess your health and fitness. We then use this to produce your very own and unique training plan to enable you to achieve your goal. To put it simply:
  1. You tell us what your goal is and when, e.g. half-marathon in 16 weeks;
  2. We analyse your existing data;
  3. We produce your unique training plan;
  4. You go for a workout;
  5. We analyse the data from the workout;
  6. We adjust your plan;
  7. You follow your constantly updating plan;
  8. You achieve your goal!
  9. We're all happy!

To record your running you will need a tracking device such as a Garmin watch or phone app, which can then send your activity data to TrainAsONE.

The Activities wizard page allows you to link your phone app or watch to TrainAsONE.

There are many options, so some recommendations:

  • Running watch: Garmin watches can guide you through workouts by pace or heart rate
  • iPhone: Racefully can talk you through each workout and link direct to TrainAsONE
  • Android: Pace To Race can talk you through each workout and link direct to TrainAsONE
Other options include:
  1. Run with the RunKeeper mobile app
  2. Link your device/app via FitnessSyncer or tapiriik.com
  3. Link your device/app to Strava or RunKeeper, then to TrainAsONE
  4. Manually download data from your device/app and upload into TrainAsONE

Strava can collect activity data from: Fitbit, Garmin, Polar, Suunto, and many others.

RunKeeper can collect activity data from: Fitbit, Garmin, Microsoft Band, iSmoothRun, TomTom, Withings, and many others.

Third party services such as FitnessSyncer and Tapiriik can connect a variety of other systems to TrainAsONE. They have an additional advantage in that they can copy more historic data.

If you have any questions or issues, please let us know.

We do not yet provide a TrainAsONE mobile app, but the website can be added to your phone home screen as if it were an app, and there are a variety of mobile apps which can record your run data and make it available for TrainAsONE.


After logging into TrainAsONE you can press the share icon (a box with an arrow at the bottom of the screen) and then select 'Add to Home Screen' to add a TrainAsONE "app" button to your iPhone.

The free Racefully iPhone app can link directly to your TrainAsONE plan, show your upcoming workouts, talk you through each run and automatically send completed runs to TrainAsONE.

It also enables people to walk, run and cycle together virtually, and compete or collaborate together in Racefully Tribes, wherever they are in the world

Other alternatives include:

  • Pace To Race which can link directly to TrainAsONE and guide you through workouts (on their premium plan)
  • iSmoothRun which can follow custom workouts and send completed activity data to a Strava account
  • Strava app itself which can send completed activities automatically to TrainAsONE


After logging into TrainAsONE you can press the menu () icon on the top right and then select 'Add to Home screen' to add a TrainAsONE "app" button to your phone.

We recommend Pace To Race which can link directly to TrainAsONE and guide you through workouts (on their premium plan)

Other alternatives include:
  • iSmoothRun which can follow custom workouts and send completed activity data to a Strava account
  • Strava app itself which can send completed activities automatically to TrainAsONE
Windows Phone

Track Runner provide a standalone app which has an option to email each completed activity to your email. After each run you would need to download the activity from your email and upload into TrainAsONE (this can be done on a computer or phone)

Most Garmin watches can guide your workout steps by speed or heart rate.

We recommend connecting:

  1. The Garmin service to send recorded activities back to TrainAsONE
  2. The Garmin Training service to push your TrainAsONE workouts to the Training calendar on most watches

Alternatively we provide a TrainAsONE Garmin ® app, which can adjust some settings and download your next workout directly to some watch models, and you can also download workouts via a computer.

Some other running devices may support loading TCX workouts, which can then help pace your workout steps based on speed or heart rate.

Contact your device supplier to confirm its capabilities.

Workout voice guidance is available on iPhone via the free Racefully app and Android via Pace To Race.

Whilst TrainAsONE receives and stores non-running activities (performing 'cursory' analysis mainly for display purposes) it only considers your runs and their effects whilst building your plan.

It has been our aim since inception to forgo the standard conventional wisdom and golden rules of training and instead develop an AI / ML (artificial intelligence and machine learning) toolset against running. Once 'good enough' we would then take that learning and extend to multi-modality training.

With the technology that underpins our Fit Scores introduced at the end of 2021, we are almost at that point. Our next step is to further utilise the knowledge of this new technology within run plan generation. It will then be a relatively simple (yet still a great amount of work) to incorporate non-running activities into plan generation. And subsequently we will then being development of scheduling non-running workouts.

Besides the fact that we do not wish to be reliant on human-simplified models of training, there are a number of reasons. For example, what TRIMP calculations could you use. (Running with mobile phones, the majority of runners do not record heart rate, and then those people that do record it are more and more using optical sensors that are notoriously unreliable.) Then there is the bigger issue that TRIMP tells you nothing of the type of training your should do next, and ubiquitously TRIMP just does not work to gauge effort. This is not just true when trying to compare efforts between modalities (e.g. running and cycling), but also within a single discipline. As an example, TRIMP has been demonstrated to out by a factor of 3 when comparing the recovery time 'required' following endurance vs sprint workouts; and a factor of 6 between different activity types.

The measurement of resting heart rate is ideally taken a few minutes after waking whilst still lying in bed. Give your body some time to adjust to the change from sleeping before taking your pulse (2-5 minutes). If you are not able to take a measurement first thing in the morning, make sure you lie down for at least 10 minutes before taking a measurement.

If you are using a device to obtain a reading, get it to measure a 1 minute period and take the average.

We're in the process of collecting data (and doing R&D) in order to build our own Artificial Intelligent (Machine Learning) based race-time predictor. For this reason, we do not currently display 'standard' prediction results (which are notoriously inaccurate as race distance increases) as we want to limit the influence on peoples performances and actual race times. However, for people who specifically ask in the week or so before their race, we do oblige (you should ask via the in-app 'ask a question' feature).

The technology behind our predictor will then also enable the system to provide very valuable and informative data on your training. This will be the 'feedback on progress towards your goal' that we know our users (and us) are desperate for!

TrainAsONE works by analysing your activity history to model your ongoing fitness and injury risk, and projecting forward to determine an ideal plan. The more data it has, the better model it can produce.

Some services such as Strava allow you to select which data to share with TrainAsONE, such as hiding private activities. By disabling these options some runs can be excluded entirely, and others altered to exclude sections near your designated home. This can result in TrainAsONE basing its plans on incomplete and potentially misleading data. While TrainAsONE can handle missed and incomplete data, we prefer to use the best data available

Presently HRV values do not affect plan generation. The reason is that we simply do not have enough data for the system to make meaningful inference and consequent decisions on. (Only around 2% of people record HRV, and the majority of those people, not regularly.) As such, we are reticent (and goes against the ethos of TrainAsONE in using our data to generate plans) about using standard principles of HRV for training adjustment as whilst the mass media may say otherwise, the evidence for its use is not clear-cut. In fact recent work illustrates that there is no clear relationship between HRV and cardiac autonomic nervous activity and with the advice being that "its use should be discouraged".

Power data is on our wishlist. However, there are 3 issues:

  1. In reality there is no consensus on the real value of power data in training;
  2. Only a very small percentage (less than 1%) of runners record power data, and so we have no data for our AI/ML to draw conclusions from (for comparison just over 20% of users record heart rate, which is still problematic);
  3. Power data from the different products / manufacturers give quite different readings and are not comparable.

Once point 2 changes, we'd love to investigate. And, of course, any data that is being collected now, should be of use in the future.

Our ideal preference is to receive your data direct from Garmin. This is becasue the raw Garmin data can contain slightly more information than that via Strava (Strava strip and / or adjust some data). However, If you sometimes run with just a phone then you will want Strava connected. You can connect both, and TrainAsONE will automatically filter out duplicates.

Having a race time when you start training can be a little non-sensical. This is because there is no available science to predict the level of response to training for any individual*.

To help clarify. If today you can run a marathon at 6:00 min/km pace and wish to attempt a 5:30 min/km marathon in X weeks time, there is no known way to calculate the training required to increase your average pace over that distance by 30 seconds per km.

In the above scenario, it is often stated (and people coached as such) that they must spend X amount of time training at their goal-pace, i.e. 5:30 min/km. Whilst this may be appropriate in a few cases, it is certainly not the rule.

TrainAsONE approaches the problem differently. Given the time you have available, we simply train you in the most efficient and effective means possible, continually adjusting your plan to achieve this. In the future, using the power of big data and our sophisticated data analysis we do intend to provide insights such as 'if you increase your training to 5 days per week we believe you could increase your chance of achieving your sub-4 hour marathon by 40%'.

* if you know different, we'd love to hear from you.

When running on non-hilly terrain, we believe that duration and pace is the best.

However, when running on undulating terrain it may be best to use heart rate (again with duration). With both methods, there is still an element of finding your pace / effort rate subjectively due the nature of the device you are reading. Their real-time pace / heart rate values can fluctuate too much (and erroneously); additionally heart rate lag response is considerable for some people.

In addition, if at any time you believe there to be a discrepancy between your specified pace and heart rate (for example, your heart rate is always far higher than that specified when running at a desired pace), let us know and we'll investigate to see if there is an issue and something we need to address.

Some factors that help illustrate the problem of achieving effective heart rate based training:

  • At any given age, the predicted maximum heart rate for 95% of individuals lies within a range of 40 bpm
  • There is no predictable relationship between heart rate and lactate threshold
  • It has been determined that heart rate training zones derived from maximum heart rate formulae are 'functionally inappropriate' in as much as 80% of people.

The simple answer is no. Moving a run may not make sense. For example moving a 30 minute interval session from a Monday to a Tuesday could have significant impacts on your Wednesday run or even the rest of your plan. Or it maybe that doing it on the Tuesday means that it can/should be increased from 30 to 40 minutes. Because of these factors we do not cater for moving of runs presently. However, as we improve on the usability of the system we will allow some form of moving with constraints or insight on how your plan will / is affected.

Despite this, you can of course just perform a run ahead of schedule and cause the system to subsequently adjust the following scheduled runs as appropriate. Though the preferred approach is to inform the system of your desire via the Training Day Rules [pencil icon] for the day on the calendar view.

There are a couple of options:

  • Do nothing, and let your plan re-build overnight.
  • Inform the system that you cannot run today, initiating a plan build so you can immediately see what your revised plan looks like. You do this by going to the Training Day Settings for today via your Calendar and setting 'Schedule Workouts' to 'No'.
Assessment runs are there to help place a firm benchmark of your current fitness level and your personal response to training. Currently TrainAsONE makes quite judicious use of them, but as we introduce more features and enhancements their relevance will diminish. Some people hate them, some people love them - they give an easy and fairly regular way for you as a runner to see how you are progressing. There are caveats to this, as a superficially worse assessment time may not under-the-hood mean that to TrainAsONE - we'll make this clearer in due course.

TrainAsONE is designed to take full advantage of the full GPS data from a real run, however we appreciate that sometimes a treadmill is all that is available.

In order to fully analyse your run TrainAsONE will need continuous distance data from the session. Many modern treadmills can sync directly to your tracking device or app, or alternatively a small "footpod" can be worn on shoes and linked to your device/phone.

If the above is not an option then the total distance and duration can be entered manually, but try not to do this too often as this lacks important information TrainAsONE needs to formulate your plan.

Note: If you have to download run data from a treadmill run, be sure to use FIT or TCX format, as GPX cannot handle data without latitude/longitude.

Whilst this can be due to data errors (around 15% of runs have errors that we must handle, else they hamper analysis) for the vast majority of cases this is just people wanting (or thinking they need) to run faster than they do. There is much evidence (and our data and analysis support it) that the mainstay of your running should be at a very slow pace.

To help illustrate. Studies have demonstrated that running at almost half of your 5 km personal best time still results in significant physiological adaptations. So if you are a 20 minute 5k person, you are still getting benefits when running at 8:00 min/km. That's a nearly 3 minute per km slower than the majority of such runners think they should be pacing their easy runs...

Going faster confers only marginal performance improvements, whilst having the negative effect of increasing ones risk of injury.

Yes. In the majority of cases where a 20 minute (or shorter) run is considered short, the reason is a day (or more) of relative rest is required - often to keep injury risk low. This may be preceded by a period of heavy training volume, or in preparation for one. Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial impact of short runs (down to 5 minutes). Not only on cardiovascular health, but also on neuromuscular reinforcement.

An important consideration is that TrainAsONE is not just scheduling a short run, its determining a combination of runs, the result of each affecting the benefits and risks for all following runs. The whole plan is a balancing act of the calculated benefits (of running) vs risk of injury. The former is based upon patterns of training that have demonstrated improved performance and better race times, whereas the latter is derived from user injury records and research papers. In general, when a short run is scheduled at a time when you REALLY REALLY feel you can do more, the injury prevention aspect is probably winning - the system calculating that potential performance gain is outweighed by the increase in injury risk. An 'issue' here is that even with increasing the duration of the run considerably the performance gain is probably marginal, yet the injury risk may rapidly rise. However... even doubling the injury risk might be acceptable to an individual. Our ideal target is ~ 3% 7 day risk during active training, and doubling to 6% still means that 94% of the time 'you will be fine', and so as an individual I'm happy: 'I do more running, which I think must be doing me a whole lot of good, and I'm not getting injured'. Unless, of course, you're one of the 6%. And as a population of runnners, if all users were to do this then we'd have double the number of people getting injured.

At TAO we see the needed system enhancement is information feedback and enabling informed decision making - the system should provide information on performance gains and risks, doing likewise for any run / plan variation that you or the system wishes to investigate (a complex piece of development with little to no existing science to fallback on, but we're working on it).

Classical marathon training plans are based on studies primarily involving fast (elite and decent club runners - think 3 hours and faster) runners, who have been running consistently at high volume for years. This does not equate to the vast majority or marathon runners today. And whilst these studies suggest a correlation between the length of long runs, and having a number of 20 mile long runs in the months before a marathon, this relationship has not been demonstrated to be causative. As such, the role of long training runs for most people is still very unclear. This is where TrainAsONE comes in. To determine, for each individual, what is the most effective and efficient training (whilst reducing risk of injury) to achieve their goals. With endurance training, this commonly means no 'very long' runs and often more back-to-back 'shorter long' runs.

Currently TrainAsONE does not schedule hill reps or any form of inclined high intensity training. There are both scientific and technical reasons for this (scientific research supports greater gains with targeting flat-level training). They are not the 'wonder-workout' you read about... Even so, we may well introduce specific hill training for users under certain situations, but it will not be the norm (unless the evidence changes!).

Consequently, our current recommendation for people training for a hilly race is to incorporate hilly terrain in their economy and / long runs.

We don't mind if you do still wish to do hill repeats of some form (probably instead of an Interval or Repetition session. We have the category 'Custom (hill repeats)' for such runs, so just please ensure you classify them correctly. This will also aid our future decision on the system scheduling such activities.

TrainAsONE provides two mechanisms to fit your training around your needs (to cater for work, social and family life) :

  1. On a week-to-week basis: You can set which days you can run, and such aspects as your maximum availability to train on each day of the week. This is accessible from your Training Settings page, located under your settings menu (the 'cog' in the top right corner of your screen).
  2. On an individual day basis: Settings similar to above can be applied to a specific date. These Training Day Rules are available by clicking on the day's title (e.g. 'Aug 23' or 'Sep 1') in your Calendar.

TrainAsONE creates your plan to provide the best mix of performance improvement and low injury risk whilst fitting in around your training constraints. In some cases this may mean your longer runs are on days you would prefer on other days (but still within your constraints). For example a run of 2 hours on a weekday, but you would prefer it on a weekend.

To alter this, you can (artificially) limit your time availability for the days you would prefer short runs only. This is best done from your Training Settings page, accessible from the Settings menu (the 'cog' in the top-right corner of your screen. This still may leave a speed-session scheduled on that day, in which case you could also mark that day as easy runs only (select custom from the schedule workouts option, and then tick include easy workouts). However, we recommend not keeping this setting permanent, as it would cause fast variants of the long run never to be scheduled.

Just select the 'Pause training/injured?' button from the dashboard

TrainAsONE will reschedule all runs after any pause date, or adjust the training to allow for the injury restrictions entered. However, if you have any specific medical advice that suggests a period of lower pace or distance, take the advice - as TrainAsONE can always adapt.

When you are ready to run again, TrainAsONE will automatically adjust the pace to allow for the training gap and ramp back up.

Following the plan may give the best training to maximise your performance for your target race, but the beauty of an adaptive system is that it can adjust your plan to your life, rather than vice versa.

If you want or need to run differently for a while, just go ahead and then ensure the data is fed back into TrainAsONE.

If you cannot upload your runs for a while (for example if your Garmin watch links to your PC and you are taking that week far away), then take a copy of your calendar at the start of the period and follow that original version.

As each day passes without uploaded data TrainAsONE will assume you have missed any run for that day and regenerate a new plan. When you get back and upload all the data it will adapt and everything will be back on track.

The simple anser is no.

In order to fully understand your fitness and response to training, TrainAsONE analyses every second of your run in a multitude of ways and it's relation to proceeding and subsequent seconds. Consequently, rest periods are important data points and so please do not pause your workouts.

The consequence of this is that your average pace for a workout is based on its total time including the rest periods, and not just the time spent running. For some people the resultant drop in reported average pace is important. As such, and as we already know your rest periods as an artefact of our existing analysis, we do intend to surface similar metrics to our users in the near future. Please bear with us.

When you first join, TrainAsONE needs to assess your fitness. Obviously, this is not a simple facet to define, and is really a collection of parameters. Some of these, and consequently your 'strengths and weaknesses' can take a short while for TrainAsONE to fully determine. Until the system does so, it will always defer to a 'safer option' with regards to workout specification. An obvious effect of this can be for new users with a goal in the far-future. The more experienced of whom, may initially not receive speed work when they may have expected as such. This situation often ties in with what is traditionally regarded as a 'base building' phase and we do not regard it as detrimental. As we continue to work on the system, the rate at which it resolves this situation will be enhanced.


  • Road vs Trail - If the race is predominantly on-road or easy to run on pathways, then choose Road
  • Best Effort vs Casual - If you ran the race at or near the fastest you could have run on the day it is a Best Effort. Casual is reserved for such instances as pacing a 'slower' friend.

Only assessments performed as scheduled should be marked as such. The only viable deviation is the length of duration of the Easy (& Very Easy) steps.

If you perform a TrainAsONE scheduled Threshold workout, then it should be classified so. If you carry out your own form of threshold / tempo runs these should be classified as Freestyle.

Intervals / Repetitions:
If you perform a TrainAsONE scheduled Interval or Repetition workout, then it should be classified so. Similar your own form of intervals (group club intervals for example) should be marked as Custom (interval).

All forms of Tabata should be classified so.

Besides TrainAsONE scheduled economy runs, a run that you do at a constant easy steady pace should be classified as such.

Anything Else:
Other workout types, e.g. Fartleks or Yasso's should be classified as Freestyle (general).

This style of workout step is all recovering from a previous hard section or about encouraging a bit of rest and mental preparation for the next. Using the above as an example, or recommendation would be to walk the first minute and gently jog for the second.

  1. Speed - All workout steps are performed according to pace.
  2. Heart rate for recovery otherwise speed - Pace is the primary workout target, however for recovery steps, e.g. after fast interval steps heart rate is used.
  3. Heart rate for slow steps, otherwise speed - Heart rate is the primary workout target, however, for fast steps (i.e. during intervals and repetitions) pace is used.
  4. Heart rate - All workout steps are performed according to heart rate.

In many ways, the choice is a personal one, though for people who live and train in flat areas we do prefer option 1.

Currently TrainAsONE performs a rebuild of your plan after every data change (activities or health metrics). This can have the side-effect that an innocuous activity can cause your plan to alter as the system could calculate an improved plan that exceeds the significance threshold to make it your actual plan. This can cause 'plan jumping', which can be annoying, especially if you like/need to plan your runs in advance. To mitigate this, the present recommendation is to reduce your plan volatility (and maybe the variation tolerance) setting in the advanced section of your training settings.

In due course the system will be considering full analysis of non-run activities in your plan, and we intend to provide enhanced features to prevent and control this plan jumping issue. Also, most probably, introducing the ability to see (and swap between) plan variations (along with predicted outcome comparisons of each plan variation).

Plan building is what is known as non-deterministic. That is there is no simple formula to build a plan and many thousands of combinations are constructed during each plan build process to determine the best. However, we do not simply switch to the best each time, as an insignificantly better plan may look considerably different, with runs on different days being an obvious and inconvenient problem. As such we only swap to the better plan when a threshold of significance has been reached. This still has the undesirable effect that 'for no apparent reason' your plan changes, with runs becoming quite a bit longer or shorter. For people who experience regular plan jumping (more common with fewer runs per week and with crosstraining) we have a 'Plan Volatility' setting (found under your Training Settings). In essence, this option alters the significance level that better plans need to reach in order to be promoted as your actual plan - a high volatility reducing the significance threshold.

We have many ideas to mitigate and resolve this annoyance, and additional features to develop (such as ability to swap back-and-forth between plan variations) that will help manage the problem.

Given the extreme variations in people's running, workout diversity, and the quality of consumer recording devices, run type classification is a complex (mathematical) problem - even we at TrainAsONE find it very difficult to classify some runs (and can get it wrong). It falls under the realm of pattern recognition, and can be compared to handwriting or image recognition. Presently the system is around 80% accurate, though there are wide variations between individuals with some seeing much lower 'hit rates' and others seeing figures over 90%. As such, do not be surprised when the system 'gets it wrong'. However, please ensure to correct the system using the run confirmation widget. In this way the system will continue to learn - a primary requisite of such AI is lots of data, and the better quality of the data, the better. In addition, with the algorithm enhancements we have planned, we are hoping to achieve over 95% across all users in the not too distant future.

It should also be said that the result of classification is only used during plan generation as part of a safety rule, and so not a major contributor to your plan. In time, it is our intention that run classification will become a purely informational tool, and bear no input on your plan.

Plan building is what is known as non-deterministic. That is there is no simple formula to build the ideal plan and many thousands of combinations are constructed during each plan build process to determine the best. The result of this is that different builds from the same set of data can often produce different plans. This is the effect that you are seeing. Our next major algorithm, along with other features, will reduce this annoyance considerably. Furthermore, we will be developing other great features, such as a historical view of your plans and the ability to swap back-and-forth between such variations, that will help the problem virtually disappear... Please bear with us.

Short runs, for example 10 minutes are intentional, and do serve a benefit. Most commonly the system schedules short runs when people return to running following a break. The data suggests that this is the most appropriate way to build up training volume again, whilst minimising risk of injury (a long running history is not as protective against injury in this case as people appear to believe). In addition, and interestingly, there are studies that demonstrate that runs as short as 5 minutes do confer a physiological benefit. We do realise that for some people such short runs are 'not worth the effort', and in this case, all we can ask is for you to take note and not do too much more than scheduled - often your plan will ramp-up quickly in a week or two and you should try to enjoy the relative rest.

This is just a warning message and you will currently always receive this on short runs. Traditionally calculations involving Running Economy and Efficiency are only considered for easy runs of around 40 minutes and upwards. However, we allow the system to calculate them for 'quality' data streams of 10 minutes or more. This often means that runs of less than 15 minutes will receive this message. It only prevents Running Economy analysis (not affecting the many other aspects of analysis) and so can be ignored. It is our intention to improve the user interface with regards to this in the future, to help explain and avoid any potential confusion.

TrainAsONE continually adjusts your plan to a mix of workouts that are calculated to be the most beneficial for you (given your goals and constraints). However, sometimes a sudden change in your next workout may not be desirable. For instance, you may have organised your day around a long run tomorrow and then having it move to a few days later is problematic. Or you may have psychologically prepared yourself for that hard assessment and having it change to an interval run might be a little 'disappointing'. When this happens, you have the option of reverting your plan back to a previous version. This can be done using the 'Recent Plans' button on your calendar screen. Activating this button will allow you to view a selection of recent plan versions along with the ability to switch back to one you prefer. Furthermore, you can also lock a plan for up to 7 days, meaning the system will not swap it to an alternative for at least that duration.

It is out intention to refine this area of the system in the future with improved ways of comparing workouts and plans, along with predicted outcome measures.

When you have no upcoming races in the system, you are placed onto a form of maintenance plan. The ethos of this is to, as the name suggests, maintain your current level of fitness. In normal circumstances this results in a fairly static level of training, though for some that level can be lower than they actually would like (with a slow and gradual increase in volume). An issue being 'maintenance' can mean many things to many people. As such consequent plans may not always meet individual needs, which in themselves may change over time. It is our intention to capture additional information from users on their desires under this situation in the future in order to enhance plan generation. However, in the meantime it may be most appropriate to enter a dummy (virtual) race of an appropriate duration into the system, most commonly of 10 km to 10 miles. Furthermore, adjusting constraints (such as reducing speedwork) could be applied 'according to taste'.

At the present time we do not have an answer for this. We have approached a number of the Apple Watch running app developers, but they have not yet been receptive to integrating with us. The best option we can suggest is to take your phone with you and use the workout guidance of our mobile app. You can still record using your Watch, and TrainAsONE will subsequently handle the duplicate recordings appropriately. In the future we would like to build our own Apple Watch application, but due to other priorities this is still some time off being developed.


These are the various classes of activity that you can perform. For example running, cycling and swimming. Currently TrainAsONE only analyses runs but does import all activity types as we will start to analyse others in the near future. Cycling is the next on the list. So keep your historical data coming in, TrainAsONE will be using it...

Adherence challenges allow you to score how closely you can follow your planned workouts

Our current feedback challenge is Exploring the Impact of Running Apps on Mental Health, run by a team from the University of Bath who are conducting a number of studies into the impact of running apps on people’s mental health and well-being.

The survey consists of an online questionnaire every other week for six to eight weeks, plus two additional questions after each run

The dashboard will show a running total of the completed post run questions

A goal is a desired achievement to attain. Presently we only support standard race distance goals, but will extend this in due course.

We further sub-classify races according to a priority or importance to you:

  • Primary - This signifies a high priority race that you wish to target your training towards and be in your best possible shape for when you hit the start-line. The system will schedule a full and appropriate taper.
  • Secondary - This is an important race, but not the main focus of your training and one you do not want to be fully prepared for at the expense of your primary race(s). As such, the system will schedule a reduced taper.
  • Casual - A race that you are not directly training for and do not intend to race hard. The system will schedule minimal, if any rest in preparation.

TrainAsONE analyses your fitness and response to exercise (and rest) in many different ways. Following from this it is able to produce a summary value to represent the overall stress a workout has imparted on your body. This is easy for us humans to understand and provides a single value estimate of the effectiveness of an activity:

  • Too low: then your body has not been stressed enough and will not make any adaptive (performance improvements) responses. If this level of exercise is maintained, your body may go into a period of 'de-training'
  • Too high: then the body has been stressed too much and a consequent increase in recovery time is required for your body to recover. If persistent inadequate rest is allowed, over-training sets in and performance (and health) will suffer
  • Just right: your body is stressed by just the right amount to induce performance enhancing responses that will be near-peak at the time of your next training session

But what value is just right? TrainAsONE will determine the ideal for each workout for you and this is stated with the planned workout (presently this is displayed within square brackets after the workout distance).

With respect to running, the primary factor that affects the amount of load that a workout imparts is your speed, i.e. the faster you go, the higher the load. In addition, environmental factors such as incline, temperature and wind can have considerable effects. Consequently, you should slow down when:

  • running uphill - It costs over twice the energy consumption to run up a 20% slope
  • running downhill on gradients approaching 40% or more -This isn't just to prevent 'jarring' your knees!
  • running in high temperatures and humidity - Obvious really?
  • running at low temperatures - Yes running in the cold has an effect on your running too, but at an ambient air temperature above 0 degrees celsius it is too minimal to worry about, but below freezing... start to slow down
  • running with a head or side-wind

TrainAsONE can automatically adjust the paces of your upcoming runs according to the temperature (based on the weather forecast) and predicted incline changes (based on your running history). This is called Temperature and Undulation adjustment within your Profile.

If you elect to turn off temperature and/or undulation adjustment, your TrainAsONE paces are specified assuming that you are running under ideal conditions: flat level terrain; an ambient air temperature of 16 C; a relative humidity of 50 to 60%; and no wind. If you are not, you might need to slow down.

There are numerous other factors that have an effect (for example, solar shortwave radiation) but we won't go into those now...

So if you notice that you have significantly different measured loads compared to those scheduled, you're probably overdoing it and should be adjusting your future pace accordingly. If in doubt, just ask us and we can advice.

These are the sub classification of a run. A simple distinction is a training run versus running a race. However, TrainAsONE has many more types, for example:
  1. Assessment (3.2 km)
  2. Assessment (6 min)
  3. Race (road)
  4. Race (trail)
  5. Training (economy)
  6. Training (interval)
  7. Training (freestyle)
  8. Training (pickup)
  9. Training (threshold)

When scheduling a run for you, TrainAsONE will tell you the type of run and the exact steps to perform.

For more details see the breakdown of run types.

Subjective Effort is your own personal view on the level of exertion it required to perform an activity / workout. Below is a guide.

Score Label Guide
0 Rest Apart from lying, sitting or standing still, you are not doing anything! Get off that couch!
1 Very, very easy Very light exertion, such as gentle walk.
2 Very easy Light exertion, such as a fast walk or even a gentle run.
3 Easy An exertion level that you can easily hold a conversation. One you feel that you could maintain for hours. This is commonly the level for a typical easy run
4 Moderate You can still hold that conversation, it's just getting a little more difficult.
5 Somewhat hard It is difficult to hold a conversation at this level, and you certainly need a little time between sentences to get your breath back.
6 Moderately hard Your breathing's getting hard and you can only manage short sentences at a time. Generally, this is the level that TrainAsONE Threshold workouts are aiming for, though you might feel otherwise.
7 Hard An intense level of exercise, where you are breathing hard and when asked to do it for 15 minutes your only thought is 'no way' (to put it mildly).
8 Really hard A high level of exercise that you could maintain for at most 6 to 8 minutes. You might be able to utter a word or two, but you'd be gasping if you did. Generally, this is the level that TrainAsONE Interval workouts are targetted at, though you might think differently!
9 Really, really hard This is an extremly high exertion level that you could maintain for not much more than a minute - if you are lucky. Talking is probably out of the question. Generally, this is the level that TrainAsONE Repetition workouts are aiming for, though you might feel otherwise!
10 Maximal Your maximum effort. This would be 'all out' efforts such as your fastest sprints or a race where you 'gave it your all'. Consequently, this should mean that this rating would include fast assessment runs.

Three important points:

  • Whilst the above is centred on expressing effort with respect to breathing and conversational ability, your subjective rating should also reflect additional factors such as duration and general fatigue. For example, a very slow paced run that you can easily hold a conversation (level 3), but is of a long duration on tired legs would be upgraded to a higher score. As such, and expressed above, by definition a best effort race would also be a 10.
  • When scoring speed workouts and assessment runs you should be primarily thinking about the fast steps. However, if (for example) you found the warm-up and cool-down steps a little harder than you would expect you may wish to increase your score slightyly.
  • This is a guide. Do not feel bound by it. For example, we know users who find Repetition runs not as strenuous as the above would suggest and mark them nearer a 7 and feel Intervals are more of a 9.

Your personal view on how happy or sad you are feeling on a scale from zero (0) to ten (10), where 0 represents feeling your most sad and 10 the happiest you believe you could feel.

Your personal view on your level of stress using a scale from zero (0) to ten (10), where 0 represents no stress and 10 the maximum possible stress you believe you could feel.

This is an EXPERIMENTAL feature that rates your training according an 'ideal' plan. Presently you can 'score' a maximum of 70 points per week (this may well change in time), divided up equally between each run you do. So if you run 5 days a week, you can score a maximum of 14 (70 divided by 5) points per run. The score for each run is based on how well you ran against your planned workout. If you over- or under- do it, you get docked points.

The above is the basics of how it works, but there are complications related to skipping, changing or doing additional runs. Over time we will improve and rectify the scoring related to such nuances. The aim being that when complete, it will not only provide a simple and good guide of how well your training is going, but also provide a mechanism to compare yourself against other people of very different abilities. In this way we will be able to produce leaderboards where 5 hr marathon runners could 'compete' against sub 3 hr ones.

As stated in the first paragraph, this is experimental, and there are big limitations that often result in negative points. If you see that, don't be alarmed - it's almost definitely the current algorithm's fault. We have developed the mechanics for a far more sophisticated next version. We can't wait to have the time to build it!

Undulation is a single value that represents the difficulty of a route according to the gradients traversed (its elevation changes). The higher the value, the more difficult the terrain, and a greater effect on your pace.

Using its advanced statistical analysis TrainAsONE has not only been able to formulate a methodology to calculate a single number to measure how difficult a terrain is to run, we are also able to correlate this value with Normalised Graded Pace (NGP). Consequently, given the undulation for a route (or an estimate based on routes in the same location) the system is able to perform predictive pacing adjustments (among other exciting things…).

When specifying paces, TrainAsONE can take into account the anticipated undulation along with a number of other factors, for example temperature, wind and humidity to deduce an Environment Adjusted Pace (EAP). Similarly, all activities are analysed with respect to the environment experienced.

VO2max is the maximal velocity of oxygen uptake. Or in layman terms the maximum rate at which an organism (you) can process oxygen. The general principle being that the higher the rate, the fitter / better athlete you are. Despite this, it is actually a poor indicator of performance, e.g. race completion time. This has not stopped well known sporting manufacturers from using it for such purposes - nice for marketing, but not actually any use.

vVO2max (velocity at maximal oxygen uptake) is an intense running pace which can be maintained for only about six minutes. This is the minimum speed for which the organism's maximal oxygen uptake is reached (after a few minutes of exercise at this intensity); at higher paces, additional power is entirely delivered by anaerobic processes. At this pace, blood lactate in the muscles reaches levels around 8-10 mM.

The vVO2max of world class middle and long-distance runners may exceed 24 km/h (14.9 mph or about 4:00/mile pace), making this speed slightly comparable to 3000 m race pace. For many athletes, vVO2max may be slightly slower than 1500 m or mile race pace.

At a basic level, a workout is simply an activity, e.g. a run or cycle. A structured workout is one where you follow a predetermined schedule with several steps. e.g. run for 5 mins at an easy pace followed by 2 minutes very fast.

Workout adherence is a measure of how strictly you followed your workout, with a perfect score being 100%. A score greater than 100% indicates that you ran faster or for longer than intended, and conversely a score less than 100% indicates that you ran slower or for a shorter duration than intended.

If you believe your score is incorrect, the first thing to check is that the run is linked to the correct workout. Following that look at the 'planned vs performed' charts for the activity to see where you have been penalised.

Besides displaying the percentage figure, on some screens within the application Workout Adherence is depicted as a 'traffic light' graphic. The table below illustrates the graphics used, along with an indication of whether the adherence score equates to the awarding of an angel or devil in one of our running challenges (though specific challenges might vary).

Graphic Workout Adherence Phrase Description Angel or Devil?
< 90% Too little! You ran significantly too slowly or for a shorter duration than planned.
90% to <92% Almost too little You almost ran too slowly or for a shorter duration than planned.
92% to <95% Slightly under A good score but you ran slightly slower or shorter than planned.
95% to <98% Almost perfect Close to perfection, but you ran just a little bit slower or shorter than planned.
98% to 102% Perfection! Top of the class! You followed your planned workout to perfection.
>102% to 105% Almost perfect Close to perfection, but you ran just a little bit faster or longer than planned.
>105% to 108% Slightly over A good score but you ran slightly faster or longer than planned.
>108% to 110% Almost too much You almost ran too fast or for a longer duration than planned.
>110% Too much! You ran significantly too fast or for a longer duration than planned.


  • Load - Physiological Load
  • ATL - Acute Training Load (aka, freshness)
  • CTL - Chronic Training Load (aka, fitness)
  • TSB - Training Stress Balance (aka, performance)
This chart is a well established standard format to help visualise training for a multitude of sports, with its use in running and cycling very common. A number of running and cycling applications and sites provide various this chart in various guises, often with a name variant, such as 'Fitness & Freshness' in Strava. The TrainAsONE chart tracks 4 data series:

Load - Your daily total physiological load.

ATL (Acute Training Load) - Often termed freshness, this represent the cumulative effect of loading on your body in terms of underlying fatigue. Increase the load, either as a large one-off or repeated small loads, your underlying fatigue increases.

CTL (Chronic Training Load) - Often termed fitness, this represents the cumulative effect of loading on your body and it's ability to 'withstand' further stresses. If you add more load, either as a large one-off or in repeated bouts this figure goes up - it says you're getting increasingly fitter, and can tolerate more load.

TSB (Training Stress Balance) - This is simply the difference between ATL and CTL. The response of CTL to a training load are much slower than that for ATL, i.e. a training load imparts an immediate fatigue response, with a concomitant slow fitness response. During training TSB will negative (with the possible exception of tapering). The often touted figures are -10 to -20 for general training, with intermittent drops as low as -30 'allowed'. However, don't expect to see such figures in TrainAsONE - but that's another whole story... and some of our users think we train them hard! (only joking)

As alluded to above, there are a number of (significant) flaws in the TSB model. The fact that training only reduces performance and never improves it for one! Still, it's often nice to look at, even if the system does not use it in training.

  • Ratio 7/28 - Ratio for 7 day to 28 day load
  • Weighted Ratio 7/28 - A weighted average form of Ratio 7/28 to smooth the effects of single hard workouts

  • AQ - Aerobic quotient
  • RE - Running efficiency
  • SEF - Simple efficiency factor

Aerobic quotient is a comparison of running efficiency between the two halves of your run, where a larger number means that you were less efficient in the second half. Positive values indicate aerobic decoupling, with common-thought considering 5% as the upper limit of good training practice.

Simple efficiency factor and Running efficiency are both measures of the efficiency of your run by comparing your heart rate against your speed. SEF is a simple summary metric, calculated as a ratio of your average heart rate during the run against your average velocity. A smaller value means greater efficiency, i.e. less effort for the same speed. RE is a far more involved calculation, that not only examines your run on a second by second basis, but whilst also factoring other parameters such as your resting / standing / and maximum heart rate. It is a range between 0 and 100, with a higher value indicating greater efficiency.

Logic states that over time (with improving 'fitness') SEF should decrease, and RE increase. However, there are many other factors to consider (for example, stage of training, state of recovery and run duration). Often, it is therefore difficult to visually spot such trends.

  • Duration - Total run duration for the week in minutes
  • Load - Total physiological Load for the week

Of the two values the training load is the more important.

  • Training Monotony - Statistical variation in activities
  • Training Strain - Single figure that represents the volume and variation in activities
It has long been recognised (and is fairly logical) that hard training sessions should be intermixed with easier ones or rest to allow recovery and physiological adaptations to take place. Training Monotony is one mechanism to measure this concept. This makes a statistical analysis of your activities to numerically represent the variation. Research would suggest that monotony figures below 1.5 are desirable, with figures above 2.0 as being too high.

Whilst monotony helps understand the periodisation of training and assessing recovery, the volume of training (load of training over time) also needs to be considered. Too low and training will be ineffective. Too high and you'll be moving into the realms of overtraining. Training Strain is one metric to aid with this, combining changes in load and monotony over time into one metric. The level of strain a particular athlete should be experiencing at any moment is dependent on many factors, but it can be safely said that rapid increases are bad. This would most commonly signify a rapid increase in load without adequate recovery.

  • vVO2max - Velocity at VO2max
  • vLT - Velocity of Lactate Threshold (Turnpoint)
  • vRE - Velocity of Running Economy
Two important metabolic markers for fitness are vVO2max and vLT. Traditionally, these are measured in a laboratory, using expensive equipment, and lots of blood-letting... TrainAsONE, however, can estimate them for you from your training (depending on your genetics and physiology, to an accuracy of 1 second per km pace) - and all without a needle in sight...

vVO2max - VO2max is the maximum rate at which your body can 'process' oxygen, i.e. the maximum amount of oxygen your lungs can absorb, your heart can pump around your body to your muscles, and your muscles can utilise. vVO2max is simply the minimum running velocity (speed / pace) to elicit VO2max. One metric of fitness is the speed at which you can run before hitting your VO2max, this is your vVO2max.

vLT - Lactate metabolism is an important aspect of the bodies energy generation (around 50% of the lactate produced during intensive exercise is used by muscles as a source of energy). Under periods of intense exercise the quantity of lactate in the blood increases, and a rapid increase is associated with diminishing performance. vLT, velocity of lactate threshold, is the speed/pace at which this rapid increase in blood lactate level occurs. Two general principles can be derived from this: 1. The faster your vLT pace is, the faster you can go before you suffer performance degradation; 2. and at any given pace below vLT, the greater your 'time to limit of exhaustion' (endurance potential). However, this is not to say that vLT is the golden metric endurance running - no one attribute serves such a purpose.

vRE - Put simply Running Economy is the energy expenditure to run at a given aerobic (sub-maximal) speed. As speed increases, so does the energy requirement. The determinants of an individual's running economy is multi-factorial and complex, but its enhancement is key to improved endurance performance. Unlike VO2max, running economy is a good predictor of race performance. TrainAsONE estimates an ideal easy pace that helps both promote improvements in your running economy and recovery from prior hard sessions. We term this your vRE, and is a initial step with some exciting ideas we have planned around this topic.

N.B. At the present moment we are only plotting the results from assessments and certain races (this may help you spot runs that have been incorrectly classified as such).

A chart of your metrics data. Presently, this chart only displays data from the metrics area of the system. In due course, it will interleave relevant data gathered from your activities too.