TrainAsONE ® is the first intelligent training app. Forget the generalised stock training plans and the ubiquitous training logs that simply tell you what you have done - TrainAsONE ® tells you how best to do it.

TrainAsONE ® is your very own personal trainer that assesses your fitness, monitors every step of your training, continually calculating and adjusting your unique personal training plan (according to the time you have available to train) in order to achieve your desired goal. Every workout produced by TrainAsONE ® is specifically designed to stress a specific body system (or systems) an appropriate amount to provide the optimal training effect.

To achieve this TrainAsONE ® will continuously calculate important facets of your performance (such as Velocity of VO2max, Lactate Threshold Velocity and Heart Rate Variability). Making these and other complex calculations enables TrainAsONE ® to continuously assess your progress and adjust workouts and overall training plan as required - whilst reducing the chances of over-training and consequent injury.

If you are returning to training following a planned or unforeseen break. No problem. TrainAsONE ® will automatically calculate the appropriate volume and intensity of training to get you back on-track in the shortest possible time.

There is no other system out on the market that performs the in-depth calculations like TrainAsONE ® to assess your fitness and then uses that to produce a totally unique and personal training plan (unless you know otherwise). The ones that claim to do as such, are really just a disguised collection of 'one size fits none' stock training plans where the system just puts you onto a specific stock plan according to some vague criteria, such as previous race completion time. Their plans are not truly unique, not adaptive and do not anticipate your response to various training stimuli and act accordingly. Did we mention that TrainAsONE ® performs around 1 million calculations for every second of your run to adjust your plan?
TrainAsONE ® is suitable for anyone who wants to improve their running abilities, as long as they pass a simple fitness questionnaire. (The questionaire we use is a world-standard set of questions for assessing ability to exercise.)
It is quite simple, We take the data from your mobile phone running app or your sports watch to analyse and assess your health and fitness. We then use this to produce your very own and unique training plan to enable you to achieve your goal. To put it simply:
  1. You tell us what your goal is and when, e.g. half-marathon in 16 weeks;
  2. We analyse your existing data;
  3. We produce your unique training plan;
  4. You go for a workout;
  5. We analyse the data from the workout;
  6. We adjust your plan;
  7. You follow your constantly updating plan;
  8. You achieve your goal!
  9. We're all happy!

To record your running you will need a tracking device such as a Garmin watch or phone app, which can then send your activity data to TrainAsONE ®.

The Activities wizard page allows you to link your phone app or watch to TrainAsONE ®.

There are many options, so some recommendations:

  • Running watch: Garmin watches can guide you through workouts by pace or heart rate
  • iPhone: Racefully can talk you through each workout and link direct to TrainAsONE ®
  • Android: Pace To Race can talk you through each workout and link direct to TrainAsONE ®
  • Windows Phone: Endomondo can link to TrainAsONE ® via FitnessSyncer
Other options include:
  1. Run with the RunKeeper mobile app
  2. Link your device/app via FitnessSyncer or tapiriik.com
  3. Link your device/app to Strava or RunKeeper, then to TrainAsONE ®
  4. Manually download data from your device/app and upload into TrainAsONE ®

Strava can collect activity data from: Fitbit, Garmin, Polar, Suunto, and many others.

RunKeeper can collect activity data from: Fitbit, Garmin, Microsoft Band, iSmoothRun, TomTom, Withings, and many others.

Third party services such as FitnessSyncer and Tapiriik can connect a variety of other systems to TrainAsONE ®. They have an additional advantage in that they can copy more historic data.

If you have any questions or issues, please let us know.

We do not yet provide a TrainAsONE ® mobile app, but the website can be added to your phone home screen as if it were an app, and there are a variety of mobile apps which can record your run data and make it available for TrainAsONE ®.


After logging into TrainAsONE ® you can press the share icon (a box with an arrow at the bottom of the screen) and then select 'Add to Home Screen' to add a TrainAsONE ® "app" button to your iPhone.

The free Racefully iPhone app can link directly to your TrainAsONE ® plan, show your upcoming workouts, talk you through each run and automatically send completed runs to TrainAsONE ®.

It also enables people to walk, run and cycle together virtually, and compete or collaborate together in Racefully Tribes, wherever they are in the world

Other alternatives include:

  • Pace To Race which can link directly to TrainAsONE and guide you through workouts (on their premium plan)
  • iSmoothRun which can follow custom workouts and send completed activity data to a Strava account
  • Strava app itself which can send completed activities automatically to TrainAsONE ®


After logging into TrainAsONE ® you can press the menu () icon on the top right and then select 'Add to Home screen' to add a TrainAsONE ® "app" button to your phone.

We recommend Pace To Race which can link directly to TrainAsONE and guide you through workouts (on their premium plan)

Other alternatives include:
  • Strava app itself which can send completed activities automatically to TrainAsONE ®

Windows Phone

Endomondo provide a Windows Mobile app which can track your runs into a free Endomondo account. Once you have an Endomondo account you can then go to Activities -> Add Activities -> FitnessSyncer in TrainAsONE ® and add Endomondo as a source and TrainAsONE ® as a destination. After each run you can go back to FitnessSyncer and hit the Synchronize button to copy any activities from Endomondo to TrainAsONE ® (or pay for a FitnessSyncer pro account and have the transfer run automatically)

Runtastic, similarly to Endomondo, provide a Windows Mobile app which can track your runs into a free Runtastic account. Unfortunately they do not allow linking to other systems, so after each run you would need to login to your Runtastic account and export the activity, then upload it into TrainAsONE ® (this can be done on a computer or phone)

Track Runner provide a standalone app which has an option to email each completed activity to your email. After each run you would need to download the activity from your email and upload into TrainAsONE ® (this can be done on a computer or phone)

Most Garmin watches can guide your workout steps by speed or heart rate.

We recommend connecting:

  1. The Garmin Activities service to send recorded activities back to TrainAsONE
  2. The Garmin Training service to push your TrainAsONE workouts to the Training calendar on most watches

Alternatively we provide a TrainAsONE Garmin ® app, which can adjust some settings and download your next workout directly to some watch models, and you can also download workouts via a computer.

Some other running devices may support loading TCX workouts, which can then help pace your workout steps based on speed or heart rate.

Contact your device supplier to confirm its capabilities.

Workout voice guidance is available on iPhone via the free Racefully app and Android via Pace To Race.

Let's conquer training for running first. Then we'll move onto all the other great sports we want to include. We already process non-running activities in preparation to begin analysing them.

The measurement of resting heart rate is ideally taken a few minutes after waking whilst still lying in bed. Give your body some time to adjust to the change from sleeping before taking your pulse (2-5 minutes). If you are not able to take a measurement first thing in the morning, make sure you lie down for at least 10 minutes before taking a measurement.

If you are using a device to obtain a reading, get it to measure a 1 minute period and take the average.

We're in the process of collecting data (and doing R&D) in order to build our own Artificial Intelligent (Machine Learning) based race-time predictor. For this reason, we do not currently display 'standard' prediction results (which are notoriously inaccurate as race distance increases) as we want to limit the influence on peoples performances and actual race times. However, for people who specifically ask in the week or so before their race, we do oblige (you should ask via the in-app 'ask a question' feature).

The technology behind our predictor will then also enable the system to provide very valuable and informative data on your training. This will be the 'feedback on progress towards your goal' that we know our users (and us) are desperate for!

Presently HRV values do not affect plan generation. The reason is that we simply do not have enough data for the system to make meaningful inference and consequent decisions on. (Only around 2% of people record HRV, and the majority of those people, not regularly.) As such, we are reticent (and goes against the ethos of TrainAsONE in using our data to generate plans) about using standard principles of HRV for training adjustment as whilst the mass media may say otherwise, the evidence for its use is not clear-cut. In fact recent work illustrates that there is no clear relationship between HRV and cardiac autonomic nervous activity and with the advice being that "its use should be discouraged".

Power data is on our wishlist. However, there are 3 issues:

  1. In reality there is no consensus on the real value of power data in training;
  2. Only a very small percentage (less than 1%) of runners record power data, and so we have no data for our AI/ML to draw conclusions from (for comparison just over 20% of users record heart rate, which is still problematic);
  3. Power data from the different products / manufacturers give quite different readings and are not comparable.

Once point 2 changes, we'd love to investigate. And, of course, any data that is being collected now, should be of use in the future.

Our ideal preference is to receive your data direct from Garmin. This is becasue the raw data we receive from them can contain slightly more information than that via Strava (Strava strip and / or modify some data). However, If you ever run with just a phone then you will want Strava connected. You can connect both, and TrainAsONE will just filter out duplicates. If you do decide to use only Garmin, you will most probably want to leave Strava connected but set to 'inactive' - this will keep your existing Strava activities, but prevent new ones from being transferred.

Training with TrainAsONE ®

Having a race time when you start training can be a little non-sensical. This is because there is no available science to predict the level of response to training for any individual*.

To help clarify. If today you can run a marathon at 6:00 min/km pace and wish to attempt a 5:30 min/km marathon in X weeks time, there is no known way to calculate the training required to increase your average pace over that distance by 30 seconds per km.

In the above scenario, it is often stated (and people coached as such) that they must spend X amount of time training at their goal-pace, i.e. 5:30 min/km. Whilst this may be appropriate in a few cases, it is certainly not the rule.

TrainAsONE ® approaches the problem differently. Given the time you have available, we simply train you in the most efficient and effective means possible, continually adjusting your plan to achieve this. In the future, using the power of big data and our sophisticated data analysis we do intend to provide insights such as 'if you increase your training to 5 days per week we believe you could increase your chance of achieving your sub-4 hour marathon by 40%'.

* if you know different, we'd love to hear from you.

When running on non-hilly terrain, we believe that duration and pace is the best.

However, when running on undulating terrain it may be best to use heart rate (again with duration). With both methods, there is still an element of finding your pace / effort rate subjectively due the nature of the device you are reading - their real-time pace / heart rate values can fluctuate too much (and erroneously).

In addition, if at any time you believe there to be a discrepancy between your specified pace and heart rate (for example, your heart rate is always far higher than that specified when running at a desired pace), let us know and we'll investigate to see if there is a problem.

The simple answer is no. Moving a run may not make sense. For example moving a 30 minute interval session from a Monday to a Tuesday could have significant impacts on your Wednesday run or even the rest of your plan. Or it maybe that doing it on the Tuesday means that it can/should be increased from 30 to 40 minutes. Because of these factors we do not cater for moving of runs presently. However, as we improve on the usability of the system we will allow some form of moving with constraints or insight on how your plan will / is affected.

Despite this, you can of course just perform a run ahead of schedule and cause the system to subsequently adjust the following scheduled runs as appropriate. Though the preferred approach is to inform the system of your desire via the Training Day Rules [pencil icon] for the day on the calendar view.

Assessment runs are there to help place a firm benchmark of your current fitness level and your personal response to training. Currently TrainAsONE ® makes quite judicious use of them, but as we introduce more features and enhancements their relevance will diminish. Some people hate them, some people love them - they give an easy and fairly regular way for you as a runner to see how you are progressing. There are caveats to this, as a superficially worse assessment time may not under-the-hood mean that to TrainAsONE ® - we'll make this clearer in due course.

TrainAsONE ® is designed to take full advantage of the full GPS data from a real run, however we appreciate that sometimes a treadmill is all that is available.

In order to fully analyse your run TrainAsONE ® will need continuous distance data from the session. Many modern treadmills can sync directly to your tracking device or app, or alternatively a small "footpod" can be worn on shoes and linked to your device/phone.

If the above is not an option then the total distance and duration can be entered manually, but try not to do this too often as this lacks important information TrainAsONE ® needs to formulate your plan.

Note: If you have to download run data from a treadmill run, be sure to use FIT or TCX format, as GPX cannot handle data without latitude/longitude.

Whilst this can be due to data errors (around 15% of runs have errors that we must deal, else they hamper analysis) the vast majority is people just wanting (or think they need) to run faster than they do. There is much evidence (and our data and analysis support) that the vast majority of your running should be at a very slow pace (a good guide is 80% or more). Going fast confers not performance improvement, and only goes to substantially increase ones risk of injury.

Yes. In the majority of cases where a 20 minute (or shorter) run is considered short, the reason is a day (or more) of relative rest is required - often to keep injury risk low. This may be preceded by a period of heavy training volume, or in preparation for one. Numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial impact of short runs (down to 5 minutes). Not only on cardiovascular health, but also on neuromuscular reinforcement.

Classical marathon training plans are based on studies primarily involving fast (elite and decent club runners - think 3 hours and faster) runners, who have been running consistently at high volume for years. This does not equate to the vast majority or marathon runners today. Consequently, marathon training for most people needs to be different. This is where TrainAsONE comes in. To determine, for each individual, what is the most effective and efficient training (whilst reducing risk of injury) to achieve their goals. With endurance training, this commonly means no 'very long' runs and more back-to-back 'shorter long' runs.

Currently TrainAsONE ® does not schedule hill reps or any form of inclined high intensity training. There are both scientific and technical reasons for this (scientific research supports greater gains with targeting flat-level training). They are not the 'wonder-workout' you read about... Even so, we may well introduce specific hill training for users under certain situations, but it will not be the norm (unless the evidence changes!).

Consequently, our current recommendation for people training for a hilly race is to incorporate hilly terrain in their economy and / long runs.

We don't mind if you do still wish to do hill repeats of some form (probably instead of an Interval or Repetition session. We have the category 'Custom (hill repeats)' for such runs, so just please ensure you classify them correctly. This will also aid our future decision on the system scheduling such activities.

TrainAsONE ® provides two mechanisms to fit your training around your needs (to cater for work, social and family life) :

  1. On a week-to-week basis: You can set which days you can run, and such aspects as your maximum availability to train on each day of the week. This is accessible from your Training Settings page, located under your settings menu (the 'cog' in the top right corner of your screen).
  2. On an individual day basis: Settings similar to above can be applied to a specific date. These Training Day Rules are available by clicking on the day's title (e.g. 'Aug 23' or 'Sep 1') in your Calendar.

TrainAsONE ® creates your plan to provide the best mix of performance improvement and low injury risk whilst fitting in around your training constraints. In some cases this may mean your longer runs are on days you would prefer on other days (but still within your constraints). For example a run of 2 hours on a weekday, but you would prefer it on a weekend.

To alter this, you can (artificially) limit your time availability for the days you would prefer short runs only. This is best done from your Training Settings page, accessible from the Settings menu (the 'cog' in the top-right corner of your screen. This still may leave a speed-session scheduled on that day, in which case you could also mark that day as easy runs only (select custom from the schedule workouts option, and then tick include easy workouts). However, we recommend not keeping this setting permanent, as it would cause fast variants of the long run never to be scheduled.

Just select the 'Pause training/injured?' button from the dashboard

TrainAsONE ® will reschedule all runs after any pause date, or adjust the training to allow for the injury restrictions entered. However, if you have any specific medical advice that suggests a period of lower pace or distance, take the advice - as TrainAsONE ® can always adapt.

When you are ready to run again, TrainAsONE ® will automatically adjust the pace to allow for the training gap and ramp back up.

Following the plan may give the best training to maximise your performance for your target race, but the beauty of an adaptive system is that it can adjust your plan to your life, rather than vice versa.

If you want or need to run differently for a while, just go ahead and then ensure the data is fed back into TrainAsONE.

If you cannot upload your runs for a while (for example if your Garmin watch links to your PC and you are taking that week far away), then take a copy of your calendar at the start of the period and follow that original version.

As each day passes without uploaded data TrainAsONE ® will assume you have missed any run for that day and regenerate a new plan. When you get back and upload all the data it will adapt and everything will be back on track.

The simple anser is no.

In order to fully understand your fitness and response to training, TrainAsONE ® analyses every second of your run in a multitude of ways and it's relation to proceeding and subsequent seconds. Consequently, rest periods are important data points and so please do not pause your workouts.

The consequence of this is that your average pace for a workout is based on its total time including the rest periods, and not just the time spent running. For some people the resultant drop in reported average pace is important. As such, and as we already know your rest periods as an artefact of our existing analysis, we do intend to surface similar metrics to our users in the near future. Please bear with us.

When you first join, TrainAsONE ® needs to assess you're fitness. Obviously, this is not a simple facet to define, and is really a collection of parameters. Some of these, and consequently your 'strengths and weaknesses' can take a short while for TrainAsONE ® to fully determine. Until the system does so, it will always defer to a 'safer option' with regards to workout specification. An obvious effect of this can be for new users with a goal in the far-future. The more experienced of whom, may initially not received speed work when they may have expected as such. This situation often ties in with what is traditionally regarded as a 'base building' phase and we do not regard it as detrimental. As we continue to work on the system, the rate at which it resolves this situation will be enhanced.


  • Road vs Trail - If the race is predominantly on-road or easy to run on pathways, then choose Road
  • Best Effort vs Casual - If you ran the race at or near the fastest you could have run on the day it is a Best Effort. Casual is reserved for such instances as pacing a 'slower' friend.

Only assessments performed as scheduled should be marked as such. The only viable deviation is the length of duration of the Easy (& Very Easy) steps.

If you perform a TrainAsONE ® scheduled Threshold workout, then it should be classified so. If you carry out your own form of threshold / tempo runs these should be classified as Freestyle.

Intervals / Repetitions:
If you perform a TrainAsONE ® scheduled Interval or Repetition workout, then it should be classified so. Similar your own form of intervals (group club intervals for example) should be marked as Custom (interval).

All forms of Tabata should be classified so.

Besides TrainAsONE ® scheduled economy runs, a run that you do at a constant easy steady pace should be classified as such.

Anything Else:
Other workout types, e.g. Fartleks or Yasso's should be classified as Freestyle (general).

This style of workout step is all recovering from a previous hard section or about encouraging a bit of rest and mental preparation for the next. Using the above as an example, or recommendation would be to walk the first minute and gently jog for the second.

  1. Speed - All workout steps are performed according to pace.
  2. Heart rate for recovery otherwise speed - Pace is the primary workout target, however for recovery steps, e.g. after fast interval steps heart rate is used.
  3. Heart rate for slow steps, otherwise speed - Heart rate is the primary workout target, however, for fast steps (i.e. during intervals and repetitions) pace is used.
  4. Heart rate - All workout steps are performed according to heart rate.

In many ways, the choice is a personal one, though for people who live and train in flat areas we do prefer option 1.

Currently TrainAsONE performs a rebuild of your plan after every data change (activities or health metrics). This can have the side-effect that an innocuous activity can cause your plan to alter as the system could calculate an improved plan that exceeds the significance threshold to make it your actual plan. This can cause 'plan jumping', which can be annoying, especially if you like/need to plan your runs in advance. To mitigate this, the present recommendation is to reduce your plan volatility (and maybe the variation tolerance) setting in the advanced section of your training settings.

In due course the system will be considering full analysis of non-run activities in your plan, and we intend to provide enhanced features to prevent and control this plan jumping issue. Also, most probably, introducing the ability to see (and swap between) plan variations (along with predicted outcome comparisons of each plan variation).

Plan building is what is known as non-deterministic. That is there is no simple formula to build a plan and many thousands of combinations are constructed during each plan build process to determine the best. However, we do not simply switch to the best each time, as an insignificantly better plan may look considerably different, with runs on different days being an obvious and inconvenient problem. As such we only swap to the better plan when a threshold of significance has been reached. This still has the undesirable effect that 'for no apparent reason' your plan changes, with runs becoming quite a bit longer or shorter. For people who experience regular plan jumping (more common with fewer runs per week and with crosstraining) we have a 'Plan Volatility' setting (found under your Training Settings). In essence, this option alters the significance level that better plans need to reach in order to be promoted as your actual plan - a high volatility reducing the significance threshold.

We have many ideas to mitigate and resolve this annoyance, and additional features to develop (such as ability to swap back-and-forth between plan variations) that will help manage the problem.

Given the extreme variations in people's running, workout diversity, and the quality of consumer recording devices, run type classification is a complex (mathematical) problem - even we at TrainAsONE find it very difficult to classify some runs (and can get it wrong). It falls under the realm of pattern recognition, and can be compared to handwriting or image recognition. Presently the system is around 80% accurate, though there are wide variations between individuals with some seeing much lower 'hit rates' and others seeing figures over 90%. As such, do not be surprised when the system 'gets it wrong'. However, please ensure to correct the system using the run confirmation widget. In this way the system will continue to learn - a primary requisite of such AI is lots of data, and the better quality of the data, the better. In addition, with the algorithm enhancements we have planned, we are hoping to achieve over 95% across all users in the not too distant future.

It should also be said that the result of classification is only used during plan generation as part of a safety rule, and so not a major contributor to your plan. In time, it is our intention that run classification will become a purely informational tool, and bear no input on your plan.

Plan building is what is known as non-deterministic. That is there is no simple formula to build the ideal plan and many thousands of combinations are constructed during each plan build process to determine the best. The result of this is that different builds from the same set of data can often produce different plans. This is the effect that you are seeing. Our next major algorithm, along with other features, will reduce this annoyance considerably. Furthermore, we will be developing other great features, such as a historical view of your plans and the ability to swap back-and-forth between such variations, that will help the problem virtually disappear... Please bear with us.

Short runs, for example 10 minutes are intentional, and do serve a benefit. Most commonly the system schedules short runs when people return to running following a break. The data suggests that this is the most appropriate way to build up training volume again, whilst minimising risk of injury (a long running history is not as protective against injury in this case as people appear to believe). In addition, and interestingly, there are studies that demonstrate that runs as short as 5 minutes do confer a physiological benefit. We do realise that for some people such short runs are 'not worth the effort', and in this case, all we can ask is for you to take note and not do too much more than scheduled - often your plan will ramp-up quickly in a week or two and you should try to enjoy the relative rest.


These are the various classes of activity that you can perform. For example running, cycling and swimming. Currently TrainAsONE ® only analyses runs but does import all activity types as we will start to analyse others in the near future. Cycling is the next on the list. So keep your historical data coming in, TrainAsONE ® will be using it...
A goal is a desired achievement to attain. Presently we only support standard race distance goals, but will extend this in due course.

TrainAsONE ® analyses your fitness and response to exercise (and rest) in many different ways. Following from this it is able to produce a summary value to represent the overall stress a workout has imparted on your body. This is easy for us humans to understand and provides a single value estimate of the effectiveness of an activity:

  • Too low: then your body has not been stressed enough and will not make any adaptive (performance improvements) responses. If this level of exercise is maintained, your body may go into a period of 'de-training'
  • Too high: then the body has been stressed too much and a consequent increase in recovery time is required for your body to recover. If persistent inadequate rest is allowed, over-training sets in and performance (and health) will suffer
  • Just right: your body is stressed by just the right amount to induce performance enhancing responses that will be near-peak at the time of your next training session

But what value is just right? TrainAsONE ® will determine the ideal for each workout for you and this is stated with the planned workout (presently this is displayed within square brackets after the workout distance).

With respect to running, the primary factor that affects the amount of load that a workout imparts is your speed, i.e. the faster you go, the higher the load. In addition, environmental factors such as incline, temperature and wind can have considerable effects. Consequently, you should slow down when:

  • running uphill - It costs over twice the energy consumption to run up a 20% slope
  • running downhill on gradients approaching 40% or more -This isn't just to prevent 'jarring' your knees!
  • running in high temperatures and humidity - Obvious really?
  • running at low temperatures - Yes running in the cold has an effect on your running too, but at an ambient air temperature above 0 degrees celsius it is too minimal to worry about, but below freezing... start to slow down
  • running with a head or side-wind

Your TrainAsONE ® paces are specified assuming you are running under ideal conditions: flat level terrain; an ambient air temperature of 16 C; a relative humidity of 50 to 60%; and no wind. If you're not, you might need to slow down.

There are numerous other factors that have an effect (for example, solar shortwave radiation) but we won't go into those now...

So if you notice that you have significantly different measured loads compared to those scheduled, you're probably overdoing it and should be adjusting your future pace accordingly. If in doubt, just ask us and we can advice.

These are the sub classification of a run. A simple distinction is a training run versus running a race. However, TrainAsONE ® has many more types, for example:
  1. Assessment (3.2 km)
  2. Assessment (6 min)
  3. Race (road)
  4. Race (trail)
  5. Training (economy)
  6. Training (interval)
  7. Training (freestyle)
  8. Training (pickup)
  9. Training (threshold)

When scheduling a run for you, TrainAsONE ® will tell you the type of run and the exact steps to perform.

For more details see the breakdown of run types.

This is an EXPERIMENTAL feature that rates your training according an 'ideal' plan. Presently you can 'score' a maximum of 70 points per week (this may well change in time), divided up equally between each run you do. So if you run 5 days a week, you can score a maximum of 14 (70 divided by 5) points per run. The score for each run is based on how well you ran against your planned workout. If you over- or under- do it, you get docked points.

The above is the basics of how it works, but there are complications related to skipping, changing or doing additional runs. Over time we will improve and rectify the scoring related to such nuances. The aim being that when complete, it will not only provide a simple and good guide of how well your training is going, but also provide a mechanism to compare yourself against other people of very different abilities. In this way we will be able to produce leaderboards where 5 hr marathon runners could 'compete' against sub 3 hr ones.

As stated in the first paragraph, this is experimental, and there are big limitations that often result in negative points. If you see that, don't be alarmed - it's almost definitely the current algorithm's fault. We have developed the mechanics for a far more sophisticated next version. We can't wait to have the time to build it!

Undulation is a single value that represents the difficulty of a route according to the gradients traversed (its elevation changes). The higher the value, the more difficult the terrain, and a greater effect on your pace.

Using its advanced statistical analysis TrainAsONE has not only been able to formulate a methodology to calculate a single number to measure how difficult a terrain is to run, we are also able to correlate this value with Normalised Graded Pace (NGP). Consequently, given the undulation for a route (or an estimate based on routes in the same location) the system is able to perform predictive pacing adjustments (among other exciting things…).

When specifying paces, TrainAsONE can take into account the anticipated undulation along with a number of other factors, for example temperature, wind and humidity to deduce an Environment Adjusted Pace (EAP). Similarly, all activities are analysed with respect to the environment experienced.

VO2max is the maximal velocity of oxygen uptake. Or in layman terms the maximum rate at which an organism (you) can process oxygen. The general principle being that the higher the rate, the fitter / better athlete you are. Despite this, it is actually a poor indicator of performance, e.g. race completion time. This has not stopped well known sporting manufacturers from using it for such purposes - nice for marketing, but not actually any use.

vVO2max (velocity at maximal oxygen uptake) is an intense running pace which can be maintained for only about six minutes. This is the minimum speed for which the organism's maximal oxygen uptake is reached (after a few minutes of exercise at this intensity); at higher paces, additional power is entirely delivered by anaerobic processes. At this pace, blood lactate in the muscles reaches levels around 8-10 mM.

The vVO2max of world class middle and long-distance runners may exceed 24 km/h (14.9 mph or about 4:00/mile pace), making this speed slightly comparable to 3000 m race pace. For many athletes, vVO2max may be slightly slower than 1500 m or mile race pace.

At a basic level, a workout is simply an activity, e.g. a run or cycle. A structured workout is one where you follow a predetermined schedule with several steps. e.g. run for 5 mins at an easy pace followed by 2 minutes very fast.